Thermolysis

Thermolysis versus pyrolysis

Thermolysis is a chemical reaction in which a starting material is decomposed by heating in multiple products. In contrast to thermal decomposition (=pyrolysis) thermolysis is used specifically for the representation of certain products or reactive intermediates.

In the rotary kiln pyrolysis very complex reactions take place, which differ greatly depending on the process temperature. It also comes here to formation of new compounds, so that the rotary kiln pyrolysis below 1000° C is actually a rotary kiln thermolysis.

Cracking

Process

Cracking (eng. Crack “cleave”) provides a method for the transformation in Petroleum represents, are cleaved with the medium- and long-chain hydrocarbons into short-chain hydrocarbons. This is necessary because the market is more short-chain hydrocarbons (gasoline, diesel, heating oil) calls as contained in the oil, while decreasing long-chain hydrocarbons found (heavy fuel oil) use.
There are two groups of cracking processes: thermal cracking and catalytic cracking. Since the thermal cracking, no catalysts are used, also residues of petroleum distillation can be supplied, which would damage due to its content of heavy metals and sulfur, the catalysts used in catalytic cracking.

Thermal cracking

In thermal cracking hydrocarbon reactions are heated under pressure to about 450° C. The long hydrocarbon molecules fall into so strong vibration that the hydrocarbon chains breaking. Thus formed short-chain olefinic hydrocarbon molecules, as well as higher molecular weight paraffinic compounds and aromatics, and a desired product in process engineering of SIRIUS Eco Tec is carbon black (short name: CBp).

 

Process and chemical description

Thermolysis is defined as degassing or carbonization of organic material by indirect heating with the exclusion of a gasification agent (eg. Oxygen, air, carbon dioxide, etc.). Here, the organic materials according to their carbon / hydrogen ratio can be split into synthetic gas or cracked gas condensate and a solid residue (thermolysis coke etc.).

The exact chemical name of this process is disproportionation. In various processes in chemical engineering, in which is used this process, but also the terms dry distillation, coking, degassing, charring or thermal cracking used. Large-scale application found these processes e. g. in the thermolysis of coal for the production of metallurgical coke (formerly for the production of coal gas) and the preparation of crude oils.

The SIRIUS T10-Batch thermolysis plant operates energy self-sufficient and needs only at initial usage of external energy.